Chapter 11 Vocabulary Industrialization

  1. “Fordism” (post-Fordism): Approach that explains how many industries are attracted to locations with relatively skilled labor to introduce new rules. Traditionally, in large factories, each worker was assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly. Relatively skilled workers are needed to master the wider variety of assignments given to them, which are more flexible rules under the ___________________ approach.
  2. Agglomeration: Phenomenon of economic activity congregating in or close to a single location, rather than being spread out uniformly across space.
  3. Assembly line: Arrangement of tools, machines, and workers in which a product is assembled by having each perform a specific, successive operation on an incomplete unit as it passes by in a series of stages organized in a direct line.
  4. basic industry: Industry producing goods or services for sale to other regions.
  5. Break-of-bulk: Point of location where transfer among transportation modes is possible.
  6. Bulk-gaining industry: Industry that makes something that gain volume or weight during production.
  7. Bulk-reducing industry: Economic activity in which the final product weighs less than its inputs.
  8. Capital: Wealth, whether in money or property, owned or employed in business by an individual, firm, or corporation.
  9. Cottage industry: Home-based manufacturing. An example of this is textile manufacturing.
  10. economies of scale: Lower production costs as a result of larger volume of production.
  11. Export processing zone: Industrial parks for foreign companies to conduct export-oriented manufacturing.
  12. Footloose industry: Industry that locate in a wide variety of places without a significant change in its cost of transportation, land, labor, and capital.
  13. Industrial Revolution: Revolution that transformed how goods are produced for a society and the way people obtain food, clothing, and shelter.
  14. Infrastructure: Fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, as transportation and communication systems, power plants, and schools.
  15. Labor-intensive: Type of industry in which labor cost is a high percentage of expense.
  16. Least-cost theory: States that optimum location of a manufacturing firm is explained in terms of cost minimization.
  17. new international division of labor: Selective transfer of skilled jobs in MDCs to LDCs that still allow skilled jobs to exist in MDCs.
  18. nonbasic industry: Industry producing goods or services for sale within the local region.
  19. primary industry/activity: Economic activity that directly extracts or harvests resources from the Earth.
  20. raw material oriented: Tendency for an industry to locate near the source of raw materials in order to save on transport costs, which usually occurs when raw materials lose weight in the production process.
  21. right-to-work state: State that has prevented a union or company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of employment.
  22. secondary industry/activity: Economic activity that transforms raw materials into usable products, adding value in the process.
  23. Site characteristics: Characteristics that result from the unique characteristics of a location, such as land, labor, and capital.
  24. Situation characteristics: Characteristics that involve transporting materials to and from a factory.
  25. tertiary industry/activity: Economic activity that links the primary and secondary sectors to the consumers and other businesses either by selling goods directly or by performing services utilizing those goods.
  26. trading bloc: Type of “industrial competition” in which the countries within a group cooperate through trade, and these groups compete against the other two (there are three total).
  27. Weber, Alfred: Creator of the model that states that the optimum location of a manufacturing firm is explained in terms of cost minimization.