Basic industries:industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement
business services:services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses
central business district (CBD):the area of the cty where retail and office activities are clustered.
central place:a market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area.
central place theory:a theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther
city-state:a sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland.
clustered rural settlement:a rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement.
consumer services:businesses that provide services primarily to indivudual consumers, including retail services and personal services.
dispersed rural settlement:a rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.
economic base:a community’s collection of basic industries
enclosure movement:the process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms n England during the eighteenth century.
gravity model:a model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach this service.
market area (or hinterland):the area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place’s goods and services.
nonbasic industries:industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community.
personal services:services that provide for the well-being and personal improvement of individual consumers.
primate city:the largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
primate city rule:a pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
producer services:services that primarily help people conduct business.
public services:services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses.
range (of a service):the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.
rank-size rule:a pattern of settlements in a country such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
retail services:services that provide goods for sale to consumers.
service:any activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it.
settlement:a permanent collection of buildings and inhabitants.
threshold:the minimum number of people needed to support the service.
transportation and information services:services that diffuse and distribute services.
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