Age distribution:The proportion of individuals of different ages within a population. You can use an age distribution to estimat survival by calculating the difference in proportion of individuals in succeeding age classes.
Agricultural revolution:the development of farming
Arithmetic Population Density:The total number of people divided by the total land area.
Capacity:the amount of people an area can support
Census:A complete enumeration of a population.
Child Mortality Rate:A figure that describes the number of children that die between the first and fifth years of their lives in a given population.
Chronic Diseases:Generally long – lasting afflictions now more common because of higher life expectancies.
Crude Birth Rate (CBR):The number of live births yearly per 1,000 people in a population. (natality)
Crude Death Rate (CDR):The number of deaths yearly per 1,000 people in a population.
Demographic equation:NIR = CBR – CDR
Demographic momentum::is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution. This is important because once this happens a country moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model.
Demographic Transistion:High birth rates and death rates are followed by plunging death rates, producing a huge net population gain, this is followed by the convergence of birth rates and death rates at a low overall level.
Demographic Transition Model: a model that tracks the steps through which a society’s population moves as a country/region progresses towards industrialization
Demography:the scientific study of population characteristics
Dependency ratio:the number of people who can’t work
Doubling Time:the time it takes for an area’s population to double
Ecumene:the area of land occupied by humans
Epidemiologic transition:The a distinctive cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition. Explains how countries’ population changes.
Eugenic Population Policies:Government policies designed to favor one racial sector over others.
Expansive Popluation Policies:Government policies that encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth.
Exponential growth:growth by a percentile instead of a static number
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR):The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1000 live births in a society.
J-curve:The shape of a line graph of population graph when growth is exponential.
Life Expectancy:A figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live.
Malthus, Thomas:British economist of late 1700′s. considered the first to predict a population crisis.
Medical Revolution:the leap of medical knowledge in stage 2 of the demographic transition
Megalopolis:1) Term used to designate large coalescing supercities that are forming in diverse parts of the world. 2)
Mortality:the rate at which people die
Natality Rate (NIR):number of birth/ year to every 1000 people in the population
Natural Increase:Population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths; does not reflect either emigrant or immigrant movements.
Natural Increase Rate (NIR):CBR – CDR = NIR
Neo-Malthusians:group who built on Malthus’ theory and suggested that people wouldn’t just starve for lack of food, but would have wars about food and other scarce resources.
Overpopulation:too many people in one place for the resources available
Physiological Population Density:The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
Population Composition:Structure of population in terms of age, gender and other properties such as marital status and education.
Population Density:A measurement of the number of people per given unit of land.
Population Distribution:Description of locations on Earth’s surface where populations live.
Population Explosion:1) The rapid growth of the world’s human population during the past century, attended by ever- shorter doubling times and sccelerating rates of increase. 2) the sudden increase of population caused by the plummeting CDR in stage 2
Population Projection:Estimation of future population growth, by extrapoliting from current trends and known growth factors.
Population Pyramids:A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and gender.
Restrictive Popluation Policies:Government policies designed to reduce the rate of natural increase.
Sex ratio:the ratio of men to women
Standard of living:The goods a services and their distribution within a population
Stationary Population Level:The level at which a national population ceases to grow.
Sustainability:The level of development that can be maintained without depleting resources.
Total Fertility Rate (TFR):the average number of children a woman has
underpopulation:A drop or decrease in a region’s population.
Zero population growth (ZPG):Where natural birth rate declines to equal cru-de birth rate and the natural rate of population approaches 0.
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